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Latin Conjugations Perfect Stem Worksheets

By on November 23, 2015
Latin Verbs Present Stem

This is the second part of a series I have been doing on conjugating Latin Verbs.  You can read part one here. If you're a part of Classical Conversations, these worksheets correspond to the memory work from Cycle 2 of the Foundations program, or the Henle I lesson 15. Latin conjugations that are formed with the perfect stem are the indicative (mood) active (voice) tenses of Perfect (the past), Pluperfect (the past of the past), and Future Perfect (the past of the future).

Latin Conjugations Perfect Stem

Latin Conjugations Perfect Tense

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I've been working through these worksheets with my 6th grader.  If she can start to become comfortable with the way verbs are built, then as she approaches them in the Henle book in Challenge A, she will have no trouble adjusting to the work that comes her way.  The purpose of the activity is to build muscle memory of these conjugations.  So often I find myself working through the Henle 1 text and passing the little assignments that say, "Memorize #134 in the grammar."  It's very easy to look at the concept in the grammar book, and then move on to the exercise because that is what I'm supposed to do to finish the assignment for the week, and that's what's important right?!  Finishing assignments?

No!  I truly desire to learn the language, so I need to practice these basics so that when I get to later lessons that don't isolate each of the verb tenses, I won't be constantly guessing at which form that verb is in.

To truly understand what is going on in these worksheets, go back and read the basics of Latin verbs here.  Each set of these worksheets have isolated one tense (Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future Perfect), one mood (indicative) and one voice (active).

The Perfect Stem

Latin verbs are given with four principle parts.  The perfect stem is found in the third principle part.

four principle parts of verbs

You will want to learn all four of these words as you study the vocabulary because if you have those principle parts, you can build any of the variations mentioned above.  The perfect stem is what we will focus on here, and it will build the forms of your verbs in the Perfect Tense, Pluperfect Tense, and Future Perfect Tense.

Latin Conjugations Perfect Stem

Perfect Tense Conjugations

1st Conjugation Verbs Perfect Tense

Pluperfect Tense

Latin Verbs Pluperfect Tense

Future Perfect Tense

1st Conjugation Verbs Future Perfect Tense (1)

Download these free PDF worksheets here!


Want more Latin resources?  Check out the Present Stem verbs worksheets, or the Noun Declension worksheets.

1st Conjugation Verbs (1)

Latin Noun Declension Worksheets


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Latin Verb Conjugations Present Stem Worksheets

By on November 12, 2015

Recently after I posted some Latin Noun Declension worksheets, I had several people ask for worksheets to complement the memory work we do in Cycle 2 of Classical Conversations going along with our Latin Verb Conjugations endings we memorize.  This was a challenge as nouns are fairly straight forward and simple, and verbs are like a whole galaxy of complexity.

Latin Verb Conjugations

If your student can get the basics of verbs, they will find the complexity fascinating and enjoy finding patterns in the endings.  Once you see the patterns, the memory work shrinks.  However, if verbs make you dizzy, then start back at the very beginning.

Latin Verb Conjugations

There are five things you need to know about verbs:

  1. Number - verbs can be singular or plural. This comes from the noun that is doing the there one person verbing, or more than one?
  2. Person - 1st, 2nd, or 3rd.  This also comes from the noun that is doing the verb - I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they
  3. Tense - In Latin, there are six tenses: present (I love - happening now), imperfect (I was loving - continuing action in the past), future (I shall love - hasn't happened yet), perfect (I loved - completed in the past), pluperfect (I had loved - the past of the past), future perfect (I shall have been loving - the past of the future)
  4. Mood - Indicative (stating a fact), Subjunctive (a wish, condition, or suggestion), Imperative (command)
  5. Voice - Active (the subject is doing the action - I love), Passive (the subject is receiving the action - I am loved by my kids).

With all of those options, you can see there are many more variations for verbs than nouns.  We are narrowing down our focus to only the first three aspects of verbs.  All of the worksheets will focus on the Indicative mood and the active voice.  Know that there are variations on the conjugations for those as well.  For more details, you might enjoy my post on Playing with Latin Verbs.

The Present Stem

Verbs are given in the vocabulary of the Henle I grammar with their 4 principle parts.

four principle parts of verbs

You will want to learn all four of these words as you study the vocabulary because if you have those principle parts, you can build any of the variations mentioned above.  The present stem is what we will focus on here, and it will build the forms of your verbs in the Present Tense, Imperfect Tense, and Future Tense.


Latin Verb Conjugations Reference

1st Conjugation Verbs Present Stem


I encourage you to not simply print these worksheets off, set them before your child, and hope that they understand how verbs work!  Rather, read over the intro sheet and then guide your student through the process of conjugating their verbs!  I would start your Latin studies with Nouns until they become comfortable, and then shift to verbs.

One other thing to understand is that there are four conjugations in Latin; that is, there are four families of verbs that change their endings in a similar way.  In the CC Foundations memory work, we only study the 1st Conjugation.  When they are in Challenge, they will study all four.  While the other three are not totally different, it is good to focus on mastering the way verbs change before you start adding in more variations.

Each worksheet features one verb.  The verb is conjugated in the first column.  In the second column, the student just adds the ending as memorized from the Foundations memory work, and identifies the personal pronoun that goes along with each definition.  The third column is all blank for the student to fill in all of the information.  You can fold the paper to hide the answers, or just use another sheet to cover.  If that is too hard, just let them copy the information.  They will still start to see the patterns even if they are simply copying!

1st Conjugation Present Tense

1st Conjugation Verbs PresentTense

1st Conjugation Imperfect Tense

1st Conjugation Verbs Imperfect Tense

1st Conjugation Future Tense

1st Conjugation Verbs Future Tense

Download the Free PDF Worksheets here!

Looking for a blank version of these charts to go off-roading with your conjugations? Get a blank version here.


More Verb Resources...

So this is the first half of the CC Cycle 2 memory work for verbs.  You can find the Perfect Stem worksheets here.

If you are looking for a more advanced tool for memorizing Latin Verb endings, try my Latin Verb Master Paradigm Practice charts.

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Latin Nouns Declension Free Printable

By on November 3, 2015
Latin Noun Declension worksheets

This year in our Classical Conversations memory work, we are memorizing the endings for Latin nouns.  I love that the CC program takes so much time to really memorize these vital bits of information.  Sometimes it's challenging as a parent to memorize something when you don't understand it's purpose.  Before I started studying Latin with my son, I was right there with you!  I've created some fun printables to help increase your understanding of Latin nouns as well as offer your students some practice in playing with Latin nouns.


Latin Noun Declension WorksheetsThis post may contain affiliate links.  Please see my full disclosure for more details.

As a Challenge I tutor, I know how valuable the Foundations memory work truly is in the day to day assignments from our Henle Latin text.  I can't tell you how often I've sung my little noun declension ending songs to help figure out which form of the word I needed for my translation work.

Last year I've started my 5th grader in the Henle text at a slow pace.  We made it through Lesson 2 in our first year! We picked up where we left off this year and we're half way through Lesson 3.  Challenge A will go through Lesson 15, so I figure any exposure I can give her now will benefit her studies later.

My 4th grader isn't quite ready for the Henle text yet, so we have decided to focus on vocabulary and declining a whole lot of nouns this year.  She has just been writing them in a spiral notebook, but I decided to make a printable for her to work from to further solidify the meaning of each form while she works without adding a whole lot of extra writing.


Simple Latin Noun Declension Notebook

I've created a set of worksheets for each declension.  The vocabulary in the worksheets comes straight from the Henle text.  Third declension is one of the trickiest, but I've limited the vocabulary in that section only to the regular nouns that decline like the song memorized in Classical Conversations Foundations program (or for those of you who are familiar with Latin, the 3rd Declension Masculine/Feminine nouns like "lex").

Click here, or click on the image below to download the free worksheets.

Latin Noun Declension worksheets


Blank Worksheet

If you'd like to branch off into other vocabulary, here's a blank worksheet for your students to fill out.  You'll need to help them identify which declension the noun belongs to, and then find the stem in the genitive singular.  Then happy declining!

Latin Noun Declension Worksheet

Practice Workbook

My youngest was super excited about having a new way to practice declining her Latin nouns.  I printed off two copies of each set to spiral for her as her little bit of Latin work each day.  I like to spiral across the top because she's a lefty and then the spiral doesn't get in her way!

Latin Noun Declension Worksheets


What questions do you have about declining Latin nouns?


Are you looking for a more advanced version of study tools for Latin declensions?  Check out my Latin Declension Mastery Charts.

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Interested in learning more about Latin Verb Conjugations?  Click the image below for Verb worksheets!
1st Conjugation Verbs (1)

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Board Slam Battleship

By on October 28, 2015

In Classical Conversations, we have an awesome game called Board Slam that we play to help with our number fluency.  This game is such a great way to play with numbers.  It's become such a hit with the kids that Classical Conversations has turned it into a national competition called National Number Knockout.

In our community, our Essentials tutor has given me permission to share her variation of this game by blending the fun number game with a classic board game.  I've taken her idea and made a fun printable so that you can make it and play it at home as well!


Board Slam Battleship

The game is simple.  Here's what you need:




  • Cut out the battleships and the board slam boards (you can color them if you want)
  • Glue a board to the both sides of two file folders
  • I took the folders and ships to Mardel to laminate them ($.30 per foot)

How to Play:

  • Each player places three ships on their game board and writes the numbers on the boats.
Board Slam Battleship
  • The players take turns combining the numbers on three dice with their choice of the four operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to make an attack on a specific number.
  • If the number they attack has a boat on it, the other player replies, "hit!" If the number attacked does not have a boat occupying it, the player replies, "miss!"
  • Players alternate attacking until all three boats of one player are sunk.

Board Slam Battleship

Example Equations if you roll 3, 5, and 6:

  • 3 + 5 + 6 = 14
  • 3 x 5 + 6 = 21
  • 3 squared + 5 squared - 6 = 28
  • 6 x 3 + 5 =23
  • 6 - 5 + 3= 4
  • Remember a number to the zero power is 1, so 6 to the zero power times 5 to the zero power times 3 to the zero power is 1!

Variations to the game:

  • Rolling the dice:  If you want an easier game, roll the dice with each turn.  For more challenging play, only roll once at the beginning.  Depending on the math level of your players, experiment with how often to roll.
  • Time: This game doesn't need to be timed, however,  for a more challenging version, set a timer for a minute, and each player get up to three attacks per turn if they can complete their calculation before the timer buzzes.
  • Number of Ships: When you print four copies of the game, you will have six ships total per side.  Add more or less ships to change up the game.

Board Slam Battleship

Hope you have fun battling with math!

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Latin in the Grammar Stage – Playing with Nouns

By on June 5, 2015
Playing with Latin Nouns

Yesterday I gave you my recommendations for materials to use in your study of Latin.  However, if you're like me, and can't quite figure out how to get all of the separate workbook studies done in the day, I'd like to offer another option!  If you are familiar with the classical approach to education, the grammar stage is the foundational  stage on which to hang all other learning.


In Cycle 1 in the Foundations program of Classical Conversations, we memorize Latin noun endings - they're called declensions.  Middle and High school students often find their Latin exercises take excessive time due to the fact that they do not have these forms clearly solidified in their minds.  Using songs to memorize the different endings is extremely helpful.  To take your grammar level study a step further, let me give you a basic overview of how Latin nouns work, and then how you can play with them to solidify the grammar in which to build upon as they grow.

What is a nounYou all probably remember learning that a noun is a person, place, thing, activity, or idea.  Unfortunately, it's not enough to just define a noun.  We might be able to pick them out in a sentence, but it's even more important to understand what jobs nouns do. There is a name for each job in Latin and in English.  I'll list the jobs and give you an example.

  • Nominative - Subject:  The mother loves.  The subject is what the sentence is about.
  • Genitive - Possessive Noun Adjective:  The mother's child eats.  ~OR~ The child of the mother eats.  The possessive noun adjective expresses ownership.
  • Dative - Indirect Object:  The child gives the mother a hug.  ~OR~ The child gives a hug to the mother. This one is tricky to detect, but it is best known as the recipient of the action but not the primary object.
  • Accusative - Direct Object:  The child kisses the mother.  Direct objects are only found when the verb is transferring action of some kind.  Here the mother is the primary object receiving the action.
  • Ablative - Object of the Preposition.  The child dances around the mother. These are the easiest to identify once you know your prepositions.  

While we used the same noun in each sentence, each time the job the noun accomplished changed.  In English, we use the position of the noun in the sentence to identify the job.  In Latin, nouns have roots, and then their jobs are identified by the different endings.  The jobs in Latin are referred to as "cases."

Latin declensions

Declensions are like families of words that all change their endings the same way.  In Latin there are 5 declensions.  Within those 5 families, there are a couple of variations, but memorizing the first column in each declension is a sufficient start.  The chart below is what the Challenge students practice over and over and over and over until they can write it out effortlessly.

Latin Noun Declension EndingsThe row at the top identifies the declensions, and the column on the left identifies the case.  Nouns will be presented in vocabulary lists in this format:  Nominative singular, Genitive singular.  You can find out what declension a noun is by looking at the ending of the genitive singular (the row above that is highlighted dark blue).how to identify parts of a Latin noun in a vocabularyAfter you've identified which declension the noun belongs to, then you can find the root of the word.  The root is the genitive singular minus the ending.  For the example above, "port" is the root.  Once you have your root, you can just replace the endings to change the job of the noun.  To decline a noun means to go through all of the possible endings of the noun:

how to decline a Latin nounLatin cases and declensionsExcellent question!  There is one more important feature of Latin nouns that is important to identify - gender.  That's right, all Latin nouns are qualified by one of three genders:  masculine, feminine, or neuter.  Conveniently, you don't have to decipher the gender of ambiguous nouns such as heaven or peace. Each declension has rules that govern the nouns contained in the family.

  • First Declension nouns are feminine unless they specifically refer to a male - like a sailor.
  • Second Declension nouns are masculine unless their Nominative singular ends with "um"...then they're neuter.
  • Third Declension nouns are complicated...they can be masculine, feminine, or neuter.  I'll save that explanation for another day!
  • Fourth Declension nouns are primarily masculine.
  • Fifth Declension nouns are primarily feminine.

Latin confusionNow you start to trust.  What I have found amazing in my own studies is that copy work causes me to slow down and observe.  If your children are in the grammar stage of Latin, they have time to sit and copy and observe.  Find a list of Latin vocabulary and decline a word a day.  You can use a formal worksheet, notebook paper (see picture below), or just complete it orally.

Playing with declining latin nouns

Declining latin nouns is playing
Declining is enjoyable for a grammar stage student just like they repeat the same sound in the the car when you're driving, or sing the same phrase of a song over and over.  They love identifying form and seeing pattern and all while they are running in circles around the living room, or jumping up and down on the mini-trampoline.  The beauty of "studying" Latin in this way is that you can tend the soil of the young linguist without a great deal of extra work or expense.

Caution:  this path requires great patience.  This is under the ground, in the dark, behind the scenes, off the radar kind of work that doesn't produce instant fruit.  But the foundation you can build with this kind of study will be able to support a mighty oak in the future.

Next, we'll take a look at how to approach a study of Latin verbs in the grammar stage.


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